Mesothelioma (Mesothelioma) is a tumour that is formed by mesothelioma cells. Mesothelioma is a layer of cells that cover the serous membranes, which in turn cover many organs and the body cavity. Mesothelioma is a rare disease that affects the surface of the pleura (lung mucosa), the membrane of the peritoneum and sometimes the pericardium. A tumour of this nature due to the rapid increase of metastases in the adjacent organs in a short time. Smoking and inhaling asbestos vapor are considered to be the main causes of mesialioma formation.
The disease in most cases is observed in men over 50 years. The mesothelioma tumour is benign and malignant, with unfavorable prognosis for the patient. In recent years, the incidence has increased significantly. The incidence of mesothelioma among European countries is first in the UK.
Classification Benign mesothelioma
Benign mesothelioma is called fibrotic. It has the form of a node (nodular mesothelioma). For a long time it may be asymptomatic, not metastatic. The malignant tumour is diffuse and occurs in 75% of cases. With no clear boundaries as it grows, it expands adjacent tissues. At the same time, the mesothelial walls are covered with small papillae.
In medical practice, there is a TNM classification of oncologic pleural lesions:
- T0 – Primary Tumour Whose Focus Is Not Detected;
- T1 – Unilateral Lesion Of One Pleural Leaf;
- T2 – Malignant Tumour Affects The Lungs, Pericardium And Diaphragm;
- T3 – Cancer Penetrates The Bones Of The Breast And Ribs;
- T4 – A Tumour Is Found In The Organs Of The Opposite Side;
- NO – No Lymph Node Metastases;
- N1 – Secondary Focus Located At The Bottom Of The Lung;
- N2 – There Are Metastases In The Mediastinal Lymph Nodes;
- N3 – Multiple Metastases In The Mediastinum And Lungs.
Causes of illness
The major factor in the onset and development of mesothelioma is the carcinogenic effect of the asbestos mineral.
It is associated with it during mining, in the production of building materials and in the production of glass. Asbestos, which accumulates in serous membranes from an early age, can provoke a tumour for several decades.
The occurrence of mesothelioma may also be affected by:
- Genetic Predisposition To The Disease;
- Chemicals Released In Large Industries (Copper, Nickel, Beryllium, Liquid Paraffin, Polyurethane, Etc.);
- SV-40 Virus;
- Irradiation In The Treatment Of Other Cancers.
- Men get mesothelioma 8 times more often than women. This is due to more difficult professional activity.
Symptoms of mesothelioma
The most common type of tumour is pleural mesothelioma, which is common in older men. After the onset of growth, the tumour can be asymptomatic for many years.
At a certain size, the tumour has the following symptoms:
- Severe Cough, Sometimes With Hemoptysis;
- Difficulty Breathing;
- Chest Pain Due To Cancer Of The Ribs In The Ribs;
- Poor Appetite And Acute Weight Loss;
- Poor Health, Weakness;
- Reduced Productivity;
- The disease can be accompanied by fever;
- Video – Malignant pleural mesothelioma