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stage 4 lung cancer

Stage 4 lung cancer spreading is called metastatic cancer. The area affected is called the metastases. To identify the spread of cancer to other parts of the body staging of lung cancer is performed, following, the prognosis of the patient is determined as well as treatment of the lung cancer in the patient. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stages are divided from 1 to 4. In Stage I the cancer is found
only in the lung and in the early stages with small tumors. In Stages 2 and 3 the cancer is limited to the chest and the tumors are large and more invasive. And, lung cancer will be spread to the other parts of the body through the bloodstream and the lymphatic system with Stage 4. The brain is the most affected part due to this kind of cancer.

Stage 4 lung cancer can spread to the bones, liver, and adrenal glands apart from being spread to the brain. Normal chest x-rays, CT scans, bone scans, and blood tests are how stage 4 lung cancer is diagnosed. Metastases to bone may be revealed during bone scans due to stage 4 lung cancer. During bone scans a radioactive material is injected to the bloodstream so that the metastases absorbs the radioactive material revealing the location of the metastases. This is recorded permanently. The presence of metastases is also revealed in blood tests during stage 4 lung cancer. For example, an increased level of calcium in the blood indicates the presence of metastases in the bone. Metastases in the liver will show a blood test with an increased level of enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. These abnormalities in the blood can be revealed through blood tests, which could be an indication of the spread of the cancer to the bones and the liver.

Stopping the growth of cancerous cells is the first step to any cancer treatment, then to treat them or remove them. Areas like the brain are treated with radiotherapy, by a radiation oncologist, to prevent the spread of cancer to those areas. A physician consultation is needed before radiotherapy of the brain is performed due to the side effects of radiation exposure. Depending on the area to which cancer has spread and if it is confined to the chest wall, diaphragm, and lymph nodes, treatments may also be combined using chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgery is also performed to treat some areas during stage 4 lung cancer.

A clinical trial of photodynamic therapy, which is a new treatment, is under way. This treatment is tried for person having small cell lung cancer, which occurs frequently and causes obstruction in the airway. You may consult your doctor for more experimental therapies of stage 4 lung cancer.

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Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

Squamous Cell Lung Cancer is a pulmonary neoplasm that is not benign. There is always additional clinical emphasis given whenever a patient is affected with this type of pulmonary neoplasm. Squamous cell lung cancer is epithelial in origin. This type of neoplasm has no boundaries in its growth or spread within the different lobes of [...]

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Chemotherapy For Lung Cancer

Chemotherapy for lung cancer is designed according to the symptoms, type of the cancerous stage, patient age, time of approach of the affected patient to the cancer specialist, etc. In general both the attending physician and the patient should be aware of baseline technical information on the kind of chemotherapy for lung cancer proposed. Toxicity [...]

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Stage 3 Lung Cancer

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Lung Cancer Staging

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Lung Cancer Survival Rate

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Symptoms: Lung Cancer

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Lung Cancer Pictures

Lung Cancer Pictures

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Mesothelioma Lung Cancer Photo

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Asthma: References

References Burke, P. & Lemone, P. (3rd Edition). (2004). Medical-Surgical Nursing: Critical Thinking in Client Care. New Jersey, USA. Pearson Education, Inc.

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Chronic Bronchitis: Surgery

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Chronic Bronchitis: Risk Factors

Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic bronchitis. People exposed to secondhand smoke can also acquire this condition. The WHO estimates that passive smoking is associated with a 10 to 43 percent increase in risk of COPD in adults. Irritant gases can also contribute to the disease development. Although cigarette smoking is the [...]

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Treatments for Chronic Bronchitis

To protect oneself from respiratory infections which can precipitate chronic bronchitis, immunization against pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza vaccine are recommended. If an infection is diagnosed, broad spectrum antibiotic is prescribed. Broad spectrum antibiotics target both Gram negative and positive bacteria. Studies show that clients with thick, tenacious sputum and increased difficulty of breathing will likely [...]

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Chronic Bronchitis: Signs and Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis are the following: Productive cough with copious amounts of thick, tenacious sputum A rattling or whistling respiratory sound resembling snoring heard upon auscultation, caused by secretions Bluish-purple discoloration of skin and mucous membranes usually resulting from a deficiency of oxygen in the blood In advanced chronic bronchitis, peripheral [...]

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Chronic Bronchitis Diagnostic Tests

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